Anesthetic management of patients undergoing endovascular procedures for treating intracranial aneurysms or cerebrovascular malformations must consider a number of specific challenges, in addition to those associated with anesthesia for other specialties. In addition to maintenance of physiological stability, manipulation of systemic and cerebral hemodynamic parameters may be required to treat any sudden unexpected catastrophic neurological events. A multidisciplinary group including neuro- and pediatric anesthesiologists, interventional neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, and a clinical methodologist contributed to this document. This consensus working group from 21 Italian institutions identified open questions regarding the best practices for management of anesthesia during endovascular neuroradiological procedures for intracranial aneurysms and cerebrovascular malformations, and addressed these by formulating practical consensus statements. At the first meeting in November 2015, nine key areas were identified regarding choice of anesthetic, patient monitoring, hemodynamic targets, postoperative care, and the management of neuromuscular blockade, anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet therapy, and special considerations for pediatric patients. Nine subgroups were established and a medical librarian performed literature searches in the Cochrane and MEDLINE/PubMed databases for each group. Groups drafted literature summaries and provisional responses in the form of candidate consensus statements based on evidence, when possible, and clinical experience, when this was lacking. Final wording was agreed at a meeting in April 2016 and where possible evidence was graded using United States Preventive Services Task Force criteria. Consensus (defined as >90% agreement) was based on evidence, clinical experience, clinician preference, feasibility in the Italian healthcare system, and cost/benefit considerations.

Castioni, Amadori, Bilotta, Bolzon, Barboni, Caricato, Dall’acqua, DI Paola, (2017). Italian COnsensus in Neuroradiological Anesthesia (ICONA). Minerva anestesiologica, 2017 Sep;83(9):956-971. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28492296